Development of the fuel cell vehicle adapting hybrid
Hidemi Ohnaka(Toyota Motor Corporation), Toshio
Uchida(Toyota Motor Corporation), Horio Kimihide(Toyota Motor
Corporation), Mikio Kizaki(Toyota Motor Corporation), Tetsuhiro
Ishikawa(Toyota Motor Corporation)
A clean and highly efficient fuel cell
vehicle is rapidly being developed by the auto industry to help
countermeasure the pollution effects against our environment. Toyota has
been developing the fuel cell vehicle as the next power source since 1992.
Toyota has self-developed theFCHV (Fuel Cell
Hybrid Vehicle) combining a Fuel Cell Stack and hybrid technology in
one. For the first time, as of December 2002, limited sales of this
vehicle has started worldwide.
Table 1 shows the
Toyota FCHV's specifications. This vehicle has a "Toyota Fuel Cell Stack".
The fuel cell stack maximum output power is 90kW. High-pressure storage
tanks (35 MPa) supply the hydrogen to the Fuel Cell Stack, but at a much
lower regulated pressure.
Toyota has developed this FC technology based
upon the gasoline hybrid technology. Instead of having an engine, the fuel
cell stack supplies the main power source, and the battery pack
augments power as needed (See Figure
2). The Fuel Cell Stack is connected in series with the motor, while
the battery pack is connected in parallel. The overall control of the Fuel
Cell stack and battery pack is controlled by the hybrid ECU. The advantage
of the hybrid system, is that it allows the fuel cell stack to be
operated at its most efficient range. The highly efficient energy
conversion of the Fuel Cell Stack, in combination with the hybrid control,
allows for a vehicle drive efficiency of 50% on the Japanese 10-15 mode.
This clearly proves that a new power source is on the horizon.
This new technology can also reduce the overall CO2 emissions; this
includes the manufacturing process of the hydrogen. Moreover,
the combination of the fuel cell stack, battery pack, and motor
characteristics allow for a smooth/responsive/powerful@acceleration
performance, unlike that of a conventional ICE vehicle. Toyota has
accumulated over 130,000 km on the proto-type models, proving the overall
reliability and durability of the system
This market introduction is recognized as having
contributed to the realization of a hydrogen society, and wide spread use
of fuel cell vehicles in the near future. It is important to develop the
fuel cell more and more, through international competition and