Development of the fuel cell vehicle adapting hybrid technology
Hidemi Ohnaka(Toyota Motor Corporation), Toshio Uchida(Toyota Motor Corporation), Horio Kimihide(Toyota Motor Corporation), Mikio Kizaki(Toyota Motor Corporation), Tetsuhiro Ishikawa(Toyota Motor Corporation)

1. Introduction
  A clean and highly efficient fuel cell vehicle is rapidly being developed by the auto industry to help countermeasure the pollution effects against our environment. Toyota has been developing the fuel cell vehicle as the next power source since 1992. Toyota has self-developed theFCHV (Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicle) combining a Fuel Cell Stack and hybrid technology in one. For the first time, as of December 2002, limited sales of this vehicle has started worldwide. 

2. Technology
Table 1 shows the Toyota FCHV's specifications. This vehicle has a "Toyota Fuel Cell Stack". The fuel cell stack maximum output power is 90kW. High-pressure storage tanks (35 MPa) supply the hydrogen to the Fuel Cell Stack, but at a much lower regulated pressure.
Toyota has developed this FC technology based upon the gasoline hybrid technology. Instead of having an engine, the fuel cell stack  supplies the main power source, and the battery pack augments power as needed (See Figure 2). The Fuel Cell Stack is connected in series with the motor, while the battery pack is connected in parallel. The overall control of the Fuel Cell stack and battery pack is controlled by the hybrid ECU. The advantage of the hybrid system, is that it allows the fuel cell stack to be operated  at its most efficient range. The highly efficient energy conversion of the Fuel Cell Stack, in combination with the hybrid control, allows for a vehicle drive efficiency of 50% on the Japanese 10-15 mode.
This clearly proves that a new power source is on the horizon.  This new technology can also reduce the overall CO2 emissions; this includes the manufacturing process of the hydrogen.   Moreover, the combination of the fuel cell stack, battery pack, and motor characteristics allow for a smooth/responsive/powerful@acceleration performance, unlike that of a conventional ICE vehicle. Toyota has accumulated over 130,000 km on the proto-type models, proving the overall reliability and durability of the system

3. Conclusion:
This market introduction is recognized as having contributed to the realization of a hydrogen society, and wide spread use of fuel cell vehicles in the near future. It is important to develop the fuel cell more and more, through international competition and cooperation.


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