E-Mail Newsletter

             Issued by the Asian TOP Panel, June 2009

           The Chinese Mechanical Engineering Society (CMES)
           The Institution of Engineers, Indonesia (PII)
           The Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers (JSME)
           The Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers (KSME)


    According to the agreement made in the 2nd Asian TOP Panel Meeting,
the ENGINEERING NEWS IN BRIEF (E-mail newsletter) has now been edited
by the JSME for the year 2009.



1) Material Microstructure Design by Phase-Field Method and Finite Element
    Method (Source: JSME)
2)  Development of Micro-structure Prediction System in FE Analysis (Source: JSME)
3)  Knotting Manipulation Performed by Mechanical Systems (Source: JSME)
4)  gUD-Space" for Tokyu Corporation Series 7000 (Source: JSME)
5)  Numerical analysis of flow characteristics of fire extinguishing agents in aircraft fire      extinguishing systems (Source: KSME)
6)  Investigation of penetration force of living cell using an atomic force microscope     (Source: KMES)
7)  Nanomechanics of biomolecules: focus on DNA (Source: KMES)


1) Material Microstructure Design by Phase-Field Method and Finite Element     Method

     Tomohiro Takaki, Kyoto Institute of Technology

 Material microstructure design is very important, because macroscopic properties of metallic materials are largely dependent on the material microstructure. However, the prediction of the microstructure is very difficult, because the microstructures are formed throughout many working processes such as solidification, hot rolling, cold rolling, heat treatment and plastic working.
 Phase-field method is most powerful tool to simulate complicated material microstructure with high accuracy. By coupling the phase-field method and finite element method based on crystal plasticity theory and homogenization method, microstructure formations due to interface migration and plastic deformation can be simulated simultaneously. Therefore, the coupling model will enable to simulate the material microstructures formed throughout a series of manufacturing processes.
 We believe that the coupling model of phase-field method and finite element method is a promising approach to design the microstructure of metallic materials and we hope that the model will be further promoted in future

2) Development of Micro-structure Prediction System in FE Analysis

     Tekeshi Hatta, Daido Steel Co., Ltd.

Recently CAE(computer aided engineering) has been spreaded widely in metal forming.Large model calculation and remeshing in heavy deformation by FE analysis become possible because of the improvements of hardware and software.
 However the obtained outputs in FE analysis are limited in shape, temperature, various stress and strain.
 So it is difficult to design optimal process to obtain final target properties in quantitatively by the current FE analysis system.
 We have developed digital engineering system DAINUS(DAIdo NUmerical process engineering System) consists of 4 prediction module (1)DAINUS-damage, (2)DAINUS-grain, (3)DAINUS-life, (4)DAINUS-cavity.
 DAINUS is installed in commercial FE analysis code using user subroutine, and can predict a ductile a ductile fracture by DAINUS-damage, micro-structure and mechanical properties by DAINUS-grain, die life by DAINUS-life, cavity consolidation by DAINUS-cavity.
 Nearly all kind of information in metal forming can be obtained in concretely and in quantatively by DAINUS.
 In this paper, as one example of 4 prediction module, the features of DAINUS-grain (the mechanism of micro-structure prediction and the application experience to turbine disk forging process) are introduced.


3) Knotting Manipulation Performed by Mechanical Systems

Hidefumi Wakamatsu, Osaka University

 Nowadays, we use several types of knots, to fasten clothes or shoes, to wrap gifts, for sewing, camping, angling, and climbing. In the apparel industry, knots are used to attach buttons onto clothes. In the medical field, they are essential for suturing or ligating tissues. Thus, knots are gtiedh closely to our life. So, a nursing-care robot, for example, may be required to perform knotting manipulation. In this article, some methods and devices for knotting manipulation performed by mechanical systems are introduced. For process planning, gknot theoryh can be applied. Possible knotting processes can be generated by a computer once a knot to be tied is given. For operation planning, probabilistic roadmap was applied to generate trajectory of the end of a rope for knotting. Tying an overhand knot was performed by one high-speed multifingered robot hand with tactile sensors. As another approach which does not need manipulators with multi-degree of freedom, a fixture for knotting was proposed. A rope is tied by inserting it into the fixture, and it can be pulled out from the fixture keeping its tied state.


4) gUD-Space" for Tokyu Corporation Series 7000

Toshie Hirai, Tokyu Car Corporation

 Sharing place for wheelchair passenger and passenger with baby-carriage is provided to Series 7000 of Tokyu Corporation. This place was designed based on the results of our joint research with Railway Technical Research Institute in terms of Universal Design. The place is called gUD-Spaceh and composed of wheelchair space with two different height handrails and 3-person facing seat in vehicle end.
 Two handrails with different height are arranged at the corner of vehicle end with L-shape. It is available not only for the handrail of wheelchair passenger but also for fixing baby carriage or backrest for standing passengers. The height of each handrail is optimized based on the result of human engineering experiment.
 3-person facing seat is also arranged in vehicle end to provide priority area for passenger with baby- carriage. This seating arrangement has utility for other purposes. For example, it utilize for priority area of wheelchair passenger or leaving a large luggage there. The space in this seating arrangement also compose wider aisle to provide better passenger flow in peak hours.
 The adoption of this place in actual train is one of our milestones. We will continue the research to spread passenger saloon arrangement with Universal Design.


5) Numerical analysis of flow characteristics of fire extinguishing agents in     aircraftfire extinguishing systems

      Jintaek Kim, Chonbuk National University

 If fire breaks out on an airplane, a large amount of fire extinguishing agents should be discharged within a very short time. For effective fire extinguishing, increased discharge velocity of the fire extinguishing agents is required. This can be achieved by using a large-sized vessel in which the fire extinguishing agents are highly pressurized by noncombustible gases. It is important to understand the flow characteristics of a fire extinguishing system for optimal system design. This study reports a numerical analysis of the flow characteristics of an airplane fire extinguishing system using halon-1301 as a fire extinguishing agent. The unsteady flow model was simulated with the general-purpose software package "FLUENT", to study the flow characteristics of the fire extinguishing agents in the system. The effects of the rupture surface area and tube diameter on the flow characteristics were investigated for optimal system design. From the analysis results, it was clarified that the characteristics of the halon discharge from the end of tube are very sensitive to the rupture surface area and significantly affected by the tube diameter.

6) Investigation of penetration force of living cell using an atomic force    microscope

     Eun-Young Kwon, Yonsei University

 Recently, the manipulation of a single cell has been receiving much attention in transgenesis, in-vitro fertilization, individual cell based diagnosis, and pharmaceutical applications. As these techniques require precise injection and manipulation of cells, issues related to penetration force arise. In this work the penetration force of living cell was studied using an atomic force microscope (AFM). L929, HeLa, 4T1, and TA3 HA II cells were used for the experiments. The results showed that the penetration force was in the range of 2~22 nN. It was also found that location of cell penetration and stiffness of the AFM cantilever affected the penetration force significantly. Furthermore, double penetration events could be detected, due to the multi-membrane layers of the cell. The findings of this work are expected to aid in the development of precision micro-medical instruments for cell manipulation and treatment.


7) Nanomechanics of biomolecules: focus on DNA

     Y.Eugene Pak, Seoul National University

 Nano-mechanical measurements and manipulations at the single-cell and single-molecular levels using the atomic force microscope (AFM) and optical tweezers are presenting fascinating opportunities to the researchers in bioscience and biotechnology. Single molecule biophysics technologies, due to their capability to detect transient states of molecules and biomolecular complexes, are the methods of choice for studies in DNA structure and dynamics, DNA-DNA and DNA-protein interactions, and viral DNA packaging. The aim of this review is to describe the recent developments of scientific tools and the knowledge gained in single molecule DNA mechanics such as DNA elasticity, electrostatics, condensation and interactions of DNA with surrounding fluids during its hydrodynamic flow.

Editor : International Affairs Committee
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