ENGINEERING NEWS IN BRIEF
Issued by the Asian TOP Panel, December, 2009
The Chinese Mechanical Engineering Society (CMES)
The Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers (JSME)
The Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers (KSME)
The Institution of Engineers, Indonesia (PII)
According to the agreement made in the 2nd Asian TOP Panel Meeting,
the ENGINEERING NEWS IN BRIEF (E-mail newsletter) has now been edited
by the JSME for the year 2009.
1) Study on Environmental Load Analysis of Railway Systems (Source: JSME)
2) Proposition of Handcrafted Model Stirling Engine That Urges to Study (Source: JSME)
3) Characteristics and activities of human powered aircraft in Japan (Source: JSME)
4) JSS as making a point of utilization on research and development (Source: JSME)
5) Development of high head multi-stage pump with large capacity for large-scale water supply system (Source: JSME)
6) Wafer Bonder using Surface Activated Bonding at Room Temperature (Source: KSME)
7) Development of high speed computation algorithm for transient analysis of rectangular plates (Source: KSME)
8) Strain gradient plasticity based finite element analysis of ultra-fine wire drawing process (Source: KSME)
9) A numerical study on the flow and heat transfer characteristics in a noncontact glass transportation unit (Source: KSME)
1) Study on Environmental Load Analysis of Railway Systems
Hiroyuki Ohno, National Traffic Safety and Environment Laboratory
It is said that railway is an energy saving transportation system in comparison with other transportation systems. On the other side, several new automobile systems - for examples, hybrid automobile, electric car and fuel cell automobile - are developing for energy saving. In these circumstances, establishment of a unified index for evaluating environmental load is expected. Therefore, we investigated several running energies by our proposed running pattern on actual railway lines for several railway vehicles and tried to estimate the environmental load of railway.
In urban area, railway shows excellent performance for energy saving. In sub-urban area, electric railway system is also excellent but environment load of diesel railway nearly equal to that of local bus.
Fuel consumption measurement method for automobile is established. It is desirable to establish standard measurement method of energy consumption for railway systems. Then we can know "real" environmental load of transportation systems.
2) Proposition of Handcrafted Model Stirling Engine That Urges to Study
Yoshitaka Kato, Oita University
Handcrafted model stirling engine has been produced to urge students to study. There are three rules about the model stirling engine; All the tools and materials to make the stirling engine can be bought in home center in provinces; Machine tools are not use at all; No flame is use to drive the stirling engine. The project ghandcrafted model stirling engineh has two main aims. It is not first priority to urge students to make stirling engine. One aim is to notice that the math and physics in high school is important. Another aim is to make students feel that the work of engineer is based on his/her lifestyle and experience. Logic may not be enough for young students to understand two things mentioned above. It is expected for the documents which explains the way of crafting and designing the model stirling engine to give students actual feeling about the two things.
3) Characteristics and activities of human powered aircraft in Japan
Eri Hayashi, IHI Corporation
Every year, many HPAs (Human Powered Aircraft) are developed and flown by university student groups in Japan, targeting a TV contest. For this background, Japanese HPAs do not satisfy the FAI (Federation Aeronautique Internationale) definition, and have special need for design; for example, they must bear the sudden descent after take-off from 10m high platform toward a lake surface with only 5m acceleration.
HPAs have 3 characteristics compared to ordinary airplanes: very light body, special wing section to fly in low Reynolds number, and large wing with high aspect ratio for less power in low speed (7-10 m/s). Typical one has 30m wing span with weight of only 35kg.
Making HPAs in Japan, since most of them are by university student groups, have 2 problems. Upper grade students must thoroughly hand down their skills to younger ones. Moreover, they must complete the process of design, manufacturing and flight @adjusting every year in tight schedule. Difficulty of management is inevitable considering the lack of experience of the newcomers. To solve this situation, many teams not only study fundamental aeronautical engineering, but try to ask and involve old members, and to establish successful management process utilizing various management techniques.
4) JSS as making a point of utilization on research and development
Naoyuki Fujita, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency
On April 2009, JAXA installed new supercomputer system, which consists of three parts. Compute engines part has totally 141TFLOPS computing power, storage part has about 11PB storage space, and integrating distributed environment part realizes integrated user environment on geographically distributed condition. Compute engines part has M,P,V,A subsystems. M and P system are Fujitsufs FX1. M system consists of 3008 nodes which has 32GB memory per node. In M and P system, multi-core utilization technologies, which are shared L2 cache, inter core hardware barrier mechanism, and fine grain automatic parallel compiler, are realized. Using these technologies M-System marked 91.19% efficiency on LINPACK. V system is NECfs SX-9 which has totally 48 vector processors, and each processor is 0.1TFLOPS. Main compute engine M-System has 120TFLOPS and 94TB Memory capacity. Storage part has 25GB/s file I/O capacity. Using these features, numerical simulation of liquid fuel primary breakup has carried out, which simulation has 60 billion grid points and output totally 150TB files. As unsteady simulation becomes popular, supercomputer should realize not only computing capacity but I/O throughput and file management feature. We have provided this kind of user friendly supercomputer system.
5) Development of high head multi-stage pump with large capacity for large-scale water supply system
Takahide Nagahara, Hitachi Plant Technologies, Ltd.
California, which has an abundance of water resources in its northern regions, is carrying out multi-purpose projects for distribution of water to its large cities in the south. The most important pumping station in the statefs water conveyance system, at the A.D.Edmonston Pumping Plant, operates 14 large pumps that are of the largest scale in the world. The station lifts up water 600 meters. However, pump efficiency decreases with deterioration over the years, and cavitation damage leads to lower efficiency as maintenance and repair comes to require longer periods of time. As an improvement performance, the Edmonston plant has begun a renovation project to replace four pumps. Hitachi, which was awarded a contract of this project, utilized the unique high technology and applied the state-of-the-art Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis to complete the hydraulic design work. In doing so, we attained the highest levels of efficiency in the world in the development of this class of multi-stage pumps. By using optimum structural design and high-quality production technology, we were able to manufacture a highly reliable large-capacity pump. The first new pump went into operation in June 2007.
6) Wafer Bonder using Surface Activated Bonding at Room Temperature
Takayuki Goto, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries. Ltd.
Advanced Technology Research Center
There is an increasing demand for wafer-level packaging of micro electro mechanical systems (MEMS). Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. has developed and readied for market a new wafer bonder that works at room temperature to improve the quality and productivity of MEMS manufacturing.
Room- temperature boning is a technology for bonding activated surfaces by removing an oxide film and absorbed substance on the bonded surface (wafer surface) under high vacuum conditions by means of ion irradiation.
MHI can provide two models of room- temperature wafer bonders. The first is a semiautomatic model suitable for research and development purposes or the trial production of devices. The second is a fully automatic model suitable for mass production of devices.
These bonders are the only industrial-level equipment capable of bonding wafers at room temperature. The primary feature of these bonders is the ability to perform high ?quality bonding of a wide range of bonding materials. Various materials for example, quarts, metal, oxide single crystal, compound semiconductor, etc. can be bonded with bulk materials strength.
Because of the high-quality bonding results, it is already used in the manufacturing of various devices.
7) Development of high speed computation algorithm for transient analysis of rectangular plates
M. S. Choi(1), D. J. Jang(1), Y. B. Kim(2), J. S. Jang(2), D. H. Moon(2)
(1) Chonnam National University
(2) Pukyong National University
A new transient analysis method for a rectangular plate structure comprised of a large number of plate elements was developed in order to significantly reduce computational time and memory. This algorithm was derived from the combination of the transfer technique of the transfer mass coefficient method, the modeling technique of the finite element method, and the numerical integration technique of Newmarkfs method. In this paper, the algorithm for the transient analysis of a rectangular plate structure is formulated by the proposed method. In order to verify the computational accuracy and efficiency of the proposed method, the results obtained by the proposed method were compared with those obtained by the finite element method and the finite element-transfer matrix method. The proposed method, the finite element-transfer mass coefficient method, could considerably reduce the computation time without the loss of accuracy, in spite of using small computation memory, by using the transfer rules successively.
8) Strain gradient plasticity based finite element analysis of ultra-fine wire drawing process
S. M. Byon(1), C. H. Moon(2), Y. Lee(3)
(1) Dong-A University
(2) POSCO Technical Research Laboratories
(3) Chung-Ang University
Steady-state rigid-plastic finite element analysis coupled with strain gradient plasticity theory has been performed to examine the size effect of material on its plastic deformation behavior and find an optimal semi-cone angle of die which minimizes the drawing energy in the ultra-fine wire drawing process. A stream-line tracing method was adopted to calculate strain component at each element and a strain surface function was introduced to compute the equivalent strain gradient of each element. Introduction of this function enables us to use an established FE code without renewal of its main structure. Hence, the constitutive equation in FE formulation is changed to couple the strain gradient plasticity. A series of FE simulation reveals that significant differences in drawing stress are observed when material size approaches its intrinsic material length. When the strain gradient plasticity theory is reflected on the steady-state FE analysis, the optimal semi-cone angle of the die is reduced by 30%. The variation of optimal semi-cone angle is attributable to considerable increment of homogeneous deformation when the material size reaches its intrinsic material length.
9) A numerical study on the flow and heat transfer characteristics in a noncontact glass transportation unit
Ik-Tae Im(1), Chan Woo Park(1), Kwang Sun Kim(2)
(1) Chonbuk National University
(2) Korea University of Technology and Education
Vertical sputtering systems are key equipment in the manufacture of liquid crystal display (LCD) panels. During the sputtering process for LCD panels, a glass plate is transported between chambers for various processes, such as deposition of chemicals on the surface. The minimization of surface scratches and damage to the glass, the rate of consumption of gas, and the stability of the floating glass-plate are key considerations in the design of a gas pad. To develop new, non-contact systems of transportation for large, thin glass plates, various shapes of the nozzle of a gas pad unit were considered in this study. In the proposed nozzle design, negative pressure was used to suppress undesirable fluctuations of the glass plate. After the nozzlefs shape was varied through numerical simulations in two dimensions, we determined the optimal shape, after which three-dimensional analyses were carried out to verify the results from the two-dimensional analyses. The rate of heat transfer from the glass plate, as a result of the gas jet, was also investigated. The average Nusselt number at the glass surface varied from 22.7 to 26.6 depending on the turbulence model, while the value from the correlation for the jet array was 23.5. It was found that the well-established correlation equation of the Nusselt number for the circular jet array can be applied to the cooling of the glass plates.
Editor : International Affairs Committee
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